Afghanistan region amasses a lot of Strategic significance and this a lot of strategic significance is an indubitable fact of Afghanistan which neither has risen Afghanistan and nor has drowned Afghanistan. This region neither could be overlooked in the great game by the Russian Empire and the British Empire in the 19th and 20th centuries and nor this region could be ignored in the cold War by USSR and America in the 20th century. Still now, this region is shaping the foreign policy of various countries. The involvement of some countries in this region is an undeniable fact. These countries are the major players in Afghanistan’s history and future.
Russia (USSR in past)is the first major player in Afghanistan’s history and future. Russian involvement in this region had not commenced after the Russian’s invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 rather its involvement had turned on when Lord Ellenborough, the president of the board of control for India, tasked Lord William Bentinck, the Governor-General, with establishing a new trade route to the Emirates of Bukhara. This step of Lord Ellenborough became the bone of contention between Russia and Great Britain and opened a Great Game between them in 1830. This Great Game had destabilized the afghan region very badly for many decades.
Russian involvement can not be constrained within only the Great Game. The Russian invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 has given birth to the new involvement of Russia in the Afghan region. This involvement has altered the foreign policy of many countries. This involvement did not only destabilize the afghan region but also made Afghanistan was a bed of throne for the Afghan people. This involvement became the reason for thousands of Afghan people’s migration from their homes to other countries. Migration in a hazardous situation is not a royal road. This involvement of Russia came to end when Russia commenced withdrawing her troops from Afghanistan in 1989 after facing a debacle at the hands of Mujahideen. Pakistan secret agency (ISI)and American secret agency (CIA) played an instrumental role in Russia’s debacle because given debacle to world superpower at that time was not a child play.
Russia was not an active player in the US war in Afghanistan. But the role of Russia was not so vulnerable in this war. Russia’s role in the peace process of Afghanistan was very crucial. After the departure of American troops from Afghanistan, Russia has also come into an active position and strived its best for making endurable relations with the Taliban’s leadership who are the new ruler of Afghanistan. By making an adequate relationship with the Taliban’s leadership, Russia seeks to strengthen its power in the world region. Secondly, by making a good relationship with the Taliban’s leadership, Russia yearns to add Afghanistan to her main exporter list and wants to sell her military weapons to Afghanistan. In addition to this, by building a good relationship with the Taliban’s leadership, Russia can utilize Afghanistan as a future investment spot.
America is the second major player in Afghanistan’s history and future. This player was not in full swing in Afghanistan before Russia invaded Afghanistan in 1979. This player came in full swing after Russia invaded Afghanistan due to Cold War. American secret agency (CIA) played a pivotal role with the help of the Pakistan secret agency (ISI) and Mujahideen in the defeat of Russia in Afghanistan. After the withdrawal of Russia from Afghanistan, this player came in the rest position and did not play a vital role in afghan history in the 1990s.
On 11 Sep 2001 world trade center incident came into a pass and became part of all newspapers and magazines around the globe. This incident changed the world order. After this incident, America again came in full swing and assaulted Afghanistan. This assault demolished the Taliban’s government in Afghanistan. After this assault, Afghan people have not only spent a very awful time but also this assault started a new chain of deaths in Afghanistan. This onslaught compelled thousands of afghan people to migrate from their homeland to other countries.
The US war in Afghanistan has been halted in 2021. America has withdrawn its troops from Afghanistan. After withdrawal, America is on the horns of the dilemma, whether America should accept the Taliban’s regime or not because the Taliban’s leadership came into power against the probability of America. I think America will not accept the Taliban’s regime immediately but later on America will not only acknowledge the Taliban regime but also will make ample connections with the Taliban’s government because the Taliban are an undeniable force in Afghanistan. Besides this, without ratifying the Taliban’s regime, Americans will not want to add one more antagonist to her enemies list.
China is the third major player in Afghanistan’s history and future. china’s Involvement in Afghanistan’s history books is not so much but china is ready to become an undeniable part of Afghan future history books due to its lot of influence around the globe. China seeks to make a sustainable relationship with the Taliban’s regime due to many factors. These factors are not only a few rather these factors are many.
Firstly, the natural resources of billions of dollars in Afghanistan are becoming a reason for closeness between China and Afghanistan. Copper in these natural resources is fascinating the china most because china has a strong grip on the electronic world and copper is a substantial component of the electronic world. Making good relations with the Taliban’s regime is necessary for China also because by making a good relationship with the Taliban’s regime, china can add one more reliable friend to her friend list in the form of Afghanistan. Loyal friends are very indispensable for china for preventing the American power around the globe, which is at daggers drawn with china. Besides this, Afghanistan can be proved a good place for investment. This aspect is also playing its role in making good links between China and the Taliban’s regime.
Pakistan is the fourth major player in Afghanistan’s history and future. This player cannot be ignored by Afghan historians and future analysts. Relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan confronted many ups and downs after Pakistan’s independence until 1979. Territorial issues are the major reason behinds these ups and downs relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan. After Russia invaded Afghanistan in 1979, this player came into an active position due to Russia’s hazard. Pakistan intelligence agency (ISI), American intelligence agency (CIA), and Mujahideen gave a very terrible defeat to Russia in Afghanistan and Russia had to withdraw her troops from Afghanistan in 1989.
American’s invasion of Afghanistan after the world trade center incident, opened a new chapter of Pakistan’s involvement in Afghanistan. In the starting period of the American invasion, Pakistan became a partner of America and furnished extensive support to America, but years after years, the world order has gained new shape and Pakistan’s policy toward the U.S.A, started to take a new form. Pakistan which was assisting America in an early period of the American invasion of Afghanistan started to make secret relations with the Taliban and these secret relations of Pakistan and Taliban has also played an important role in sighing agreement between the Taliban and America. Due to this agreement, America has withdrawn its troops from Afghanistan.
Now, after the withdrawal of America’s troops from Afghanistan, the Taliban have come into power. Good relations exist between Pakistan and the Taliban’s leadership. Good relations between Pakistan and the Taliban’s leadership are mandatory for both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Taliban cannot acknowledge its regime in the world without Pakistan’s assistance and by making a good bond with the Taliban’s leadership, Pakistan can regulate her border with Afghanistan in a good way. In addition to this, by formulating good ties with the Taliban’s leadership, Pakistan can also add one more credible friend to her friends’ list, which is very essential for better handling of India. Good ties between Pakistan and the Taliban’s leadership are also crucial for them for geopolitical dynamics and trade.
India is the fifth major player in Afghanistan’s history and future. The involvement of India in the Afghan region was not so much from 1947 to 2011. In Oct 2011 Afghanistan signed its first strategic pact with India. After this Pact, the relationship between Afghanistan and India has been a strong day in and day out. Between 2011 to 2019, many projects of billions of dollars were signed between Afghanistan and India, Salma dam is one of the examples of these projects. These projects did not only strengthen the relations between India and Afghanistan but also has destabilized the ties between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Now, America has withdrawn its troops. Taliban have come into power. Ashraf Ghani’s government has been demolished. Indian’s billions of dollar investment can also be wasted due to bad relations with the Taliban, who is the new ruler of Afghanistan. At this time, the relations between India and the Taliban’s leadership are delicate but I think India will make good ties with the Taliban in the future because by making good ties with the Taliban’s leadership, India can conserve her investment in Afghanistan.
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Iran are also major players in Afghanistan’s history and future. All these players are the neighbors of Afghanistan and none country can progress without making adequate ties with neighbors. Besides this, millions of Tajiks and Uzbeks are an undeniable part of Afghanistan’s population So, all these players are included in the list of major players of Afghanistan’s history and future and no one can deny these major players.
According to the present scenario, the Taliban have come off with flying colors in US War in Afghanistan and have come into power. A new chapter of Afghanistan’s history has been started. Taliban’s leadership is striving to make a powerful government in Afghanistan. Pakistan, Iran, China, Qatar, turkey, and Russia are assisting in making the Taliban’s powerful government in Afghanistan. These countries are also giving different pieces of advice to the Taliban’s leadership for recognizing its regime to the world.
A good strategy has been adopted by the Taliban’s leadership after capturing mostly areas of Afghanistan. Instead of paying off old scores, Giving forgiveness to her enemies is an example of this good strategy. Taliban will have to adopt a flexible approach because it is the need of the hour. Taliban should change her thinking of behind the time because Taliban’s leadership cannot recognize its regime from the world by imposing the same rules of the 1990s in present Afghanistan. Taliban’s leadership should ponder over her former rules of the 1990s and should bestow some liberty to her people. Taliban will have to formulate a conclusive government. Besides this, the Taliban will have to confer the right of education to the Afghan women because prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said “Seeking knowledge is a duty of every Muslim man and woman “(Al-Tirmidhi, hadith 74)